Vitamin C transport and its role in the central nervous system, 2012
Topics: ascorbate transport; brain; dehydroascorbate; glutamate; neurons; SVCT2
Authors: James M. May
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is important as an antioxidant and participates in numerous cellular functions. Although it circulates in plasma in micromolar concentrations, it reaches millimolar concentrations in most tissues. These high ascorbate cellular concentrations are thought to be generated and maintained by the SVCT2 (Slc23a2), a specific transporter for ascorbate. The vitamin is also readily recycled from its oxidized forms inside cells. Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) contain some of the highest ascorbic acid concentrations of mammalian tissues. Intracellular ascorbate serves several functions in the CNS, including antioxidant protection, peptide amidation, myelin formation, synaptic potentiation, and protection against glutamate toxicity. The importance of the SVCT2 for CNS function is supported by the finding that its targeted deletion in mice causes widespread cerebral hemorrhage and death on post-natal day 1. Neuronal ascorbate content as maintained by this protein also has relevance for human disease, since ascorbate supplements decrease infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion injury models of stroke, and since ascorbate may protect neurons from the oxidant damage associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s. The aim of this review is to assess the role of the SVCT2 in regulating neuronal ascorbate homeostasis and the extent to which ascorbate affects brain function and antioxidant defenses in the CNS.
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Frequently Asked Questions about Fascia
On the Fascia Guide FAQ we have gathered the most common questions and answers about Fascia. Is there anything you would like to know? Visit the page and submit your question.
Fascia does not only envelope the whole body, it turns the way we look at the body upside down
At the 2015 Fascia Research Congress in Washington DC, Tom Myers, the author of Anatomy Trains, gives a short introduction to Fascia and how new research changes the way we look at pain and discomfort.
Fascia Expert: “An explosion of new research in the last 10 years”
In 2015 veterinary Vibeke S Elbrønd published the first report on Fascia and horses. To make that happen she had to learn all there was regarding fascia, she had to become a fascia expert.
Why do so many female football players suffer from cruciate ligament injuries?
A lot of injuries after a long break might not be that unusual – but why do so many female athletes suffer from cruciate ligament injuries?
Understanding Fascia in 10 minutes – the must see German documentary
In early 2013, a German documentary was broadcast based on the latest research on the Fascia. It provides a very basic introduction for newcomers. To help you get a quick overview of Fascia, we have cut together a 10 minute version.
Inflammation in Fascia causes pain – new discoveries presented in Stockholm
Dr Heike Jäger, Professor Karl Arfors and innovator Hans Bohlin presented the latest research regarding Fascia, inflammation and Fascia treatment in Stockholm, May 2017.
Fluid flow in the fascia & how it is affected by treatment & vibrations
Recently, a German researcher showed that the connective tissue in a human transports 15 l of water in 48 hours, which is a relatively large amount compared to for example the amount of blood and the lymphatic system.
The influence of mechanical forces on Fascia?
Connective tissue / fascia is an incredibly adaptable and plastic tissue. It is transformed, remodeled and strengthened or weakened according to the mechanical stimulation (load) to which it is exposed. If we don’t move, the tissue will diminish.
Fascia in Horses – Danish veterinary exploring uncharted territory
In 2015 veterinary Vibeke S Elbrønd published the first report on Fascia and horses. Through autopsy she found that the horse has the same kind of chains and networks of connective tissue through the body, as found in humans.
How do we learn to understand Fascia?
Fascia is a new perspective, a completely new way of looking at the body, a new way of conducting research and a new way of understanding the world. So how do you learn to understand Fascia?