Temporomandibular Myofascial Pain Syndrome-Aetiology and Biopsychosocial Modulation. A Narrative Review, 2021

Topics: biopsychosocial profile modulation; bruxism; limbic system; stress; temporomandibular myofascial pain syndrome

Authors: Paulina Golanska, Klara Saczuk, Monika Domarecka, Joanna Kuć, Monika Lukomska-Szymanska


This review elaborates on the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of temporomandibular (TMD) myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) regulated by psychosocial factors. MPS impairs functioning in society due to the accompanying pain. Directed and self-directed biopsychosocial profile modulation may be beneficial in the treatment of MPS. Moreover, nutrition is also a considerable part of musculoskeletal system health. A fruit and vegetable diet contributes to a reduction in chronic pain intensity because of its anti-inflammatory influence. Cannabidiol (CBD) oils may also be used in the treatment as they reduce stress and anxiety. A promising alternative treatment may be craniosacral therapy which uses gentle fascia palpation techniques to decrease sympathetic arousal by regulating body rhythms and release fascial restrictions between the cranium and sacrum. MPS is affected by the combined action of the limbic, autonomic, endocrine, somatic, nociceptive, and immune systems. Therefore, the treatment of MPS should be deliberated holistically as it is a complex disorder.

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