Estrogenic Effect of Salvia officinalis Extract on Reproductive Function of Female Mice and Identification of Its Phenolic Content, 2021
Topics: Natural phytoestrogens; female mice.; menopause; natural estrogen; phenolic content; saliva officinalis; uterotrophic activity
Authors: Sabah H Elgayed, Elham A Afify, Hanan A Amin, Ahmed A H Abdellatif
Background: Natural Phytoestrogens present in plants are effective hormonal replacement therapy. They are converted to estrogenic substances in the gastrointestinal tract, which is considered as the natural alternative to estrogen substitute treatment for postmenopausal women.
Aims and objective: Salvia officinalis, a herb traditionally used to ameliorate postmenopausal complications, can provide a safe alternative to synthetic pharmaceuticals for the treatment of menopause. Therefore, it is conceivable to detect the possible estrogenic effect of Salvia Officinalis extract as an estrogen replacement therapy in female mice.
Methods: Phytochemical, pharmacological, and immune histopathological techniques are adopted in this study. HPLC is used for the identification of extracted constituents of sage herb. The uterotrophic activity of the extract was determined in immature female mice. Moreover, the mean thickness and luminal epithelium and the photomicrographs of the luminal epithelium of the uterus were also studied.
Results: HPLC revealed that quercetin is the major extracted constituent (28.6%) of the total components. Saliva officinalis extract produced a significant increase in the uterine dry weight of equal potency to estrogen. The uterus exhibited a significant increase in luminal epithelial cell height (43.3 ± 6.1μm and 36.5 ± 2.5μm) for estradiol and sage extract, respectively, compared with the control group (18.2 ± 3.5μm). Furthermore, the endometrium showed the lining epithelium formed of a single layer of columnar epithelium. The stroma seemed more voluminous with dilated vasculature. Conversely, the myometrium within the uterus was not affected in any of the experimental groups.
Conclusion: The sage herbs induced proliferative changes in the uteri of treated mice, which suggest possible estrogenic properties. Saliva officinalis extract can be used as a hormonal replacement for women during menopause and could be further explored for contraceptive use.