Cannabidiol differentially regulates basal and LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, lung epithelial cells, and fibroblasts, 2019
Topics: CBD; E-cigarette; E-liquid; Lung; Marijuana; Vaping
Authors: Thivanka Muthumalage and Irfan Rahman
Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) containing products are available in a plethora of flavors in oral, sublingual, and inhalable forms. Immunotoxicological effects of CBD containing liquids were assessed by hypothesizing that CBD regulates oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts.
Methods: Epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and NHBE), macrophages (U937), and lung fibroblast cells (HFL-1) were treated with varying CBD concentrations or exposed to CBD aerosols. Generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators were measured. Furthermore, monocytes and epithelial cells were stimulated with LPS in combination with CBD or dexamethasone to understand the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD.
Results: CBD showed differential effects on IL-8 and MCP-1, and acellular and cellular ROS levels. CBD significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activity, IL-8, and MCP-1 release from macrophages. Cytokine array data depicted a differential cytokine response due to CBD. Inflammatory mediators, IL-8, serpin E1, CXCL1, IL-6, MIF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, RANTES, and TNF-α were induced, whereas MCP-1/CCL2, CCL5, eotaxin, and IL-2 were reduced. CBD and dexamethasone treatments reduced the IL-8 level induced by LPS when the cells were treated individually, but showed antagonistic effects when used in combination via MCPIP (monocytic chemotactic protein-induced protein).
Conclusion: CBD differentially regulated basal pro-inflammatory response and attenuated both LPS-induced cytokine release and NF-κB activity in monocytes, similar to dexamethasone. Thus, CBD has a differential inflammatory response and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in pro-inflammatory conditions but acts as an antagonist with steroids, overriding the anti-inflammatory potential of steroids when used in combination.
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Frequently Asked Questions about Fascia
On the Fascia Guide FAQ we have gathered the most common questions and answers about Fascia. Is there anything you would like to know? Visit the page and submit your question.
Stretching the fascia is vital when recovering from injury
David Lesondak describes how stretching the fascia is vital for rehabilitation from injury at the 2018 Fascia Research Congress in Berlin
Why do so many female football players suffer from cruciate ligament injuries?
A lot of injuries after a long break might not be that unusual – but why do so many female athletes suffer from cruciate ligament injuries?
Fascia does not only envelope the whole body, it turns the way we look at the body upside down
At the 2015 Fascia Research Congress in Washington DC, Tom Myers, the author of Anatomy Trains, gives a short introduction to Fascia and how new research changes the way we look at pain and discomfort.
The discovery of a new cell at the 2018 Fascia Research Congress in Berlin
Fascia research has sparked a wildfire of new insights that are challenging conventional belief about how the body works – and the latest insights are presented at the 2018 Fascia Research Congress in Berlin.
Fascia as a flow – a new way of explaining the body’s function
By beginning to see the body as something that is alive, and not something that is dead, we have been able to begin to notice other things.
Problems linked to Fascia
Fascia is a system of flexible connective tissue encapsulating everything in the body. If the system is running smoothly, all is fine, but when some parts become stiff, tense or inflamed, there will be consequences.
Stress and sugar harms fascia functions
What we do know for sure is that the abundance of sugar has a negative effect on the fascia and makes it less elastic. Stress also affects the fascia in a disadvantageous way
9 tips: How to keep your Fascia healthy and balanced
One of the best ways to keep yourself healthy, free from pain and injuries is to take care of your Fascia. Here are 9 tips on how to take care of your Fascia.
What causes back pain?
New research shows that low back pain is caused by inflammation in the Fascia. But why are we getting low back pain and what happens in our body when we get back pain?